Manufactured by Gebr. Kunz in Germany cir. 1925-29 and imported by United Hardware & Tool Corp. under their Fulton brand. United competed directly with retail giant Sears, Roebuck & Co. in-house brand name Fulton tools. It is unknown how or why the two companies co-existed in the 1920s. Many Futon tool owners are unaware of the presence of imported Fulton brand tools by United Hardware & Tool Corp.
Fulton brand tools imported by United Hardware & Tool Corp. were manufactured in Germany prior to 1938 as evidenced by the missing "West" Germany mark. United likely fell victim to ever increasing tariffs being levied on imported tools. In 1929, representatives of United testified before the Ways & Means Committee on the damaging effects of the tariffs on their import business. Confirmation of Gebr. Kunz as the manufacturer of the United Fulton brand hand planes can be found in the 1017 pages of testimony.
"Reference was made to quotations of a certain German manufacturer named Kunz. This makers goods were imported by United Hardware & Tool Corporation, and their laid down cost price was No. 4, $1.42; No. 5, $1.61 in New York
without any commission or profit." - Endlein & Schmidt (Inc.), C. Endlein, President.
In testimony before the 1929 US House Ways & Means Committee.
Education video on "Influence of the Cap-iron on Hand Plane." Created by Professor Yasunori Kawai and Honorary Professor Chutaro Kato, Faculty of Education, Art and Science, Yamagata University. Video taken in Yamagata Prefecture, Japan. English closed captioning provided by Mia Iwasaki.
I recently completed a free japanning instruction series where participants learned to prepare a hand plane, mix japanning, apply and heat cure the new finish. The tips and tricks to getting that smooth, ultra-deep black finish. Interested? Contact me about future classes at aPlaneLife@comcast.net